Vanadyl Sulfate

Vanadium Pentoxide(V2O5)

CAS No: 1314-62-1

UN  No.:  2862

Transport hazard class: 6.1



  • Catalysts for sulphuric acid, maleic anhydride, adipic acid.
  • Colouring and glaze for ceramic industry.
  • Enameling frits for porcelain or aluminum coating.
  • Pigment and  absorption of ultraviolet light or infrared light for glass industry.
  • DeNOx FCC additives for  Petroleum Processing.
  • Corrosion inhibition in carbon dioxide scrubbers for gas sweetening of types Benfield, Ventrocoke.
  • Grain refining in tungsten carbides.
  • Manufacturing vanadium aluminum.
  • Additive for Li rechargeable batteries or light emitting substances for display screens.
  • Magnetic material.






Vanadium Trioxide(V2O3)

CAS No: 1314-34-7

UN  No.:  2860

Transport hazard class: 6.1



  • As material be used in vanadium battery.
  • As material manufacturing VCl3.
  • Colouring for ceramic industry and glasses industry.
  • Catalyst for  Petroleum Processing
  • Grain refining in tungsten carbides.
  • Be used in capacitor material, electronic components, switch material(magnetic switch, thermal switch, electro-optical switch) etc.
  • Magnetic material





Vanadyl Sulfate(VOSO4)

CAS No.: 27774-13-6

UN  No.:  2931

Transport hazard class: 6.1

Used in

  • Manufacturing vanadium redox batterie.
  • Dye stuff for textile industry.
  • Colouring & pigment for coating and plating industry.
  • Dispersions for styrene-butadiene, acryl.
  • Additive for service time extension in lubricants.
  • Catalysts for glyphosate, nitric acid.
  • Glucose control in multi vitamin/multi mineral drugs.






Vanadium Battery Electrolyte

CAS No.: 27774-13-6

UN  No.: 3264

Transport hazard class: 8

Used in

Only suitable for vanadium battery.

Deep green liquid.

Working temperature: -10℃-45℃.






V2O5                         99% min               99.5% min                     99.8% min

V2O4                       1.5% max                1.0% max                       0.4% max

S                            0.05% max                  0.01% max                 0.005% max

Fe                            0.2% max               0.02% max                    0.01% max

Si                             0.2% max               0.06% max                    0.01% max

Ca                          0.05% max               0.03% max                    0.02% max

Al                           0.01% max               0.005% max                  0.002% max

Na2O+K2O              1.0% max               0.05% max                    0.03% max 




















V2O3                                               99.5% min                                        99.8% min

Ca                                                  0.055% max                                     0.015% max

Fe                                                   0.04%  max                                      0.015% max

Mg                                                 0.033% max                                       0.01% max

Si                                                   0.022% max                                     0.015% max

Cr                                                  0.006% max                                      0.002% max

Al                                                 0.015%  max                                      0.002% max

Na+K                                             0.18%  max                                        0.03% max















VOSO4●(X)H2O                                                                 99% min

Moisture                                                                              35% max

V5+                                                                                    0.2% max

Fe                                                                                  0.002% max

K                                                                                    0.005% max

Si                                                                                   0.005% max

Na                                                                                  0.002% max

Al                                                                                   0.001% max

Precipitate in aqua ammonia                                               1% max













V                                                                                1.5-1.8 mol/L

V3+/VO2+                                                                    1:1 (±1%)

SO42+                                                                        4.2-4.5mol/L

Density                                                                     1.33-1.38 g/mL

Ca                                                                                <30 mg/L

Fe                                                                                 <30 mg/L

Na                                                                                 <50 mg/L

K                                                                                   <50 mg/L

Si                                                                                  <50 mg/L

Cr                                                                                  <30 mg/L

Mn                                                                                 <10 mg/L

Al                                                                                   <10 mg/L

Zn                                                                                   <10 mg/L

Ratio of Active Material Utilization                                      ≥95%










Steel drum with inner vinyl bag.

50 KG : 420mm*430mm*500mm;

100KG: 520mm*550mm*900mm.






Vanadyl Sulfate(VOSO4)

Physical properties

Vanadyl sulfate is an inorganic hygroscopic compound that is solid, blue crystalline in structure at room temperatures. It is a highly stable compound and hence it is mostly used in the laboratories as a source of vanadium.. During the extraction of petroleum products vanadyl sulfate is found as an intermediate product. This process is used a major source of vanadyl sulfate for commercial use.

It has a melting point of 105 oc at which it decomposes on further heating. It is also non flammable and it irritates when it comes in contact with the eyes or when inhaled

Most of sulfate are soluble in water and hence they are rarely found in nature this also the case with vanadyl sulfate. Vanadyl sulfate can be found as anhydrous form called pauflerite. It is rarely found in hydrated form, it can be found in hydrate form as hex-hydrated, tri-hydrate and penta-hydrated .

Chemical properties

Vanadyl sulfate has a chemical formula VOSO4, it has molecular mass of 163g/mol. The compound is normally prepared through the reduction of vanadium pent-oxide with sulfur (iv) oxide . The reaction is represented by the following chemical equation.

V2O5 + 7 H2O + SO2 + H2SO4 → 2 [V(O)(H2O)4]SO4

The compound crystallizes from the aqueous solution formed in the above equation to form penta-hydrate . When put in an acidic solution it dissociates to form a yellow-coloured solution. This is a reduction reaction where there is oxidation of vanadyl sulfate. The reduction of vanadyl sulfate gives products like vanadium (lll) sulfate which is green in colour and vanadium (ll) sulfate which is violet in colour. Vanadyl ion ( VO2+) is the most stable diatomic ion .

Since vanadyl sulfate is more common than others, it is mostly used to make other vanadyl derivatives for instance the making of vanadyl acetylacetonate as shown in the equation below.

V(O)(H2O)4]SO4 + 2C5H8O2 + Na2CO3 → [V(O)(C5H7O2)2] + Na2SO4 + 5 H2O + CO2

The compound has a covalent double bond and single covalent bond of 160 pm and 50pm length shorter than V–OH2 respectively.

Medical research

Medical research in the field of diabetes have been carried out on how vanadyl sulfate can be used to increase the sensitivity of insulin, however there is still no evidence from previous reviews that shows how oral supplementation of vanadium can change glycaemic control.

This oral supplementation has been met by criticism since some claim it has side effects like gastrointestinial and diarrhea (Cupp, and Tracy)

Vanadyl sulfate is also recommended as a product for body building.


  • Vanadyl sulfate is an essential component of most diet.

  • It is use as an experimental drug .

  • It is also marketed for body builders.

  • Vanadyl sulfate is effective in reducing insulin resistance and in lowering blood glucose levels

Works Cited

Cupp, Melanie J, and Timothy S. Tracy. Dietary Supplements: Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press, 2003. Print.